34th IGC 2015 Vilnius, Lithuania

Location and Working Hours
26. Aug 30. Aug. 2015

IGC 2015: Vilnius, Lithuania

Dear Participants,

We are really honored for the first time to host IGC Conference here, in Lithuania – “Lonely Planet“ Best in Travel destination for 2015. Thank you for taking this great opportunity to come to Europe’s Northern Baroque pearl – capital Vilnius and our Amber land, Lithuania. Many of you are coming from afar to share great ideas and experiences, all in the single love to gemmology.

Since I joined IGC, I have been impressed by high level of intelligence and the pool of knowledge of great IGC community that was built almost 90-ty years ago and still continuing to grow. From Greenland to Japan, from France, Germany to India, Sri Lanka to Australia, from Tanzania, Switzerland to Vietnam, USA, Canada and many more – the community’s in-depth research and awareness in science of gemmology shines through.

I am truly delighted that our worldwide dialogue and exchange in gemmological research will be held with the highest-level standard here, at Vilnius University, one of the oldest Alma Mater in Europe, developing its deep scientific traditions for over 430 hundred years.

I wish all of you an inspiring conference and great discoveries and emotions visiting our charming Vilnius and beautiful Lithuania – the country where World Amber Road starts.

Dr. Arūnas Kleišmantas

Dr. Arūnas Kleišmantas Chairman of 34th IGC 2015


Vilnius University
Vilnius (Lithuania)

Thursday 27th August

8.30–9.00 Registration at the Small Aula, Central Building, Vilnius University

9.00–9.45 Opening ceremony at the Small Aula, Central Building, Vilnius University

9.45–10.15 Coffee break

Amber/Diamonds Session

10.15–10.35 Sigitas Podėnas: Crane flies (Diptera, Tipuloidea) from Baltic amber

10.35–10.55 Albertas Bitinas: Amber in the Southeast Baltic Sea region: Geological aspect

10.55–11.15 Jonas Satkūnas: Perspectives of amber production in Lithuania

11.15–11.30 Coffee break

11.30–11.50 Willow Wight: Canadian Amber—History and significance to science

11.50–12.10 Lore Kiefert: Natural green amber from Ethiopia

12.10–12.30 Tay Thye Sun, Arunas Kleismantas, Thet Tin Nyunt, Zheng Minrui, Murali Krishnaswamy, Loke Hui Ying: Burmese amber from Hti Lin

12.30–14.00 Lunch Chairperson Dr. Emmanuel Fritsch

14.00–14.20 Thomas Hainschwang, Franck Notari, Emmanuel Fritsch: Natural “lonsdaleite and CO2 rich“ diamonds

14.20–14.40 Hiroshi Kitawaki, Mio Hisanaga, Masahiro Yamamoto, Kentaro Emori: Type Ib yellow to brownish yellow CVD synthetic diamond

14.40–15.00 Joe C.C. Yuan: Identification and influence to the future market of synthetic diamond

15.00–16.00 Poster session (see below)

16.00–16.20 Coffee break 16.20 Conference day closes

16.30–18.00 Excursion to Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania

19.30 Transfer to Belmontas park

20.00–22.00 Dinner at Belmontas restaurant

Friday 28th August

Coloured Stones/Testing Techniques Corundum natural, treated

8.00–8.45 Executive Committee meeting Chairperson Dr. Dietmar Schwarz

9.00–9.20 Anette Juul-Nielsen: Small scale mining of rubies and pink sapphires at Fiskenaesset, Greenland

9.20–9.40 Jayshree Panjikar, Aatish Panjikar: Investigation into the asterism observed in the star ruby from Neriya, Karnataka, India

9.40–10.00 Kentaro Emori, Hiroshi Kitawaki: Geographic origin determination of ruby and blue sapphire based on trace element analysis using LA-ICP-MS and 3D-plot

10.00–10.20 Emilie Elmaleh, Stefanos Karampelas, Susanne Theodora Schmidt, Federico Galster: Zircon inclusions in blue sapphires

10.20–10.40 Coffee break

Coloured Stones/Testing Techniques Corundum natural, treated

10.40–11.00 J.C. (Hanco) Zwaan, Eric Buter, Regina Mertz-Kraus, Robert E. Kane: Alluvial sapphires from Montana – Inclusions, geochemistry and indications for a metasomatic origin

11.00–11.20 E. Gamini, G. Zoysa: Sapphire deposits of Sri Lanka

11.20–11.40 K. Schmetzer, M.P. Steinbach, H.A. Gilg, A.R. Blake: Dual-color double stars in corundum and quartz

11.40–12.00 Visut Pisutha-Arnond, Chaniya Rochd, Wilawan Atichat, Pornsawat Wathanakul, Nalin Narudeesombat: Role of Be in reduction and oxidation heating of sapphire

12.00–13.30 Lunch

13.30–13.50 Walter A. Balmer, Michael S. Krzemnicki: Be-detection by FTIR on corundum: A preliminary report

13.50–14.10 Thanong Leelawatanasuk, Nalin Naruedeesombat, Namrawee Susawee, Pantaree Lomthong, Pornsawat Wathanakul: “Surface de-leaded” ruby

14.10–14.30 Ahmadjan Abduriyim: Residual pressure distribution and visualization of mineral inclusions in corundum: application of photoluminescence spectroscopy in relation to sapphires from New England, New South Wales, Australia

14.30–14.50 S.I. Liu, C.M. Ouyang, F.Y. Ng: The application of VPSEM-Raman coupled system in studying Fei Cui

14.50–15.50 Poster session (see below)

15.50–16.10 Coffee break

16.10 Conference day closes

17.30 Departure by bus from Vilnius to Trakai

18.30 Family picture with all the participants at the Trakai Castle

20.00–23.00 Gala dinner at the Trakai Castle

Saturday 29th August

Coloured Stones/Pearls Session

9.00–9.20 Shane F. McClure: Brazilian emeralds from the Belmont mine

9.20–9.40 Masaki Furuya, Scott Davies: Gemmological features of pallasitic peridot of six different meteorites

9.40–10.00 R. Serov, Y. Shelementiev, A. Serova: Russian demantoid color origin

10.00–10.20 Andy H Shen, Zemin Luo, Mingxing Yang: Country of origin determinations of nephrite jades from East Asia Regions

10.20–10.40 Coffee break Chairperson Dr. Jayshree Panjikar

10.40–11.00 Karen E. Fox: Opal Adventures in the Land of Never Never

11.00–11.20 Emmanuel Fritsch, Peter Megaw, Tyler L. Spano-Franco: Green-luminescing, gem hyalite opal from Zacatecas, Mexico

11.20–11.40 Ulrich Henn, Observations on some rare gem materials

11.40–12.00 Claudio C. Milisenda, Stefan Koch, Stefan Müller, Tom Stephan, Michael Wild: Gemstones with photochromism

12.00–12.20 Dietmar Schwarz: Colored gemstones – Mines and markets

12.20–14.00 Lunch Chairperson Dr. Pornsawat Wathanakul

14.00–14.20 Elisabeth Strack: The present situation of freshwater pearls from Wisconsin

14.20–14.40 Michael S. Krzemnicki, Vincent Revol, Carina Hanser, Laurent Cartier, Henry A. Hänni: X-ray phase contrast and X-ray scattering images of pearls

14.40–15.00 Nicholas Sturman, Artitaya Homkrajae, Areeya Manustrong, Nanthaporn Somsa-ard: X-ray computed microtomography (μ-CT) structures of known natural and non-bead cultured Pinctada maxima pearls

15.00–15.20 Sutas Singbamroong, Nazar Ahmed, Ayesha Rashid Ahmed, Mohamed Karam, Ghaliah Hassan, Sameera Mohammed, Nahla Al Muhairi: Observations on natural non-nacreous pearls reportedly from Tridacna (clam) species

15.20–15.40 Coffee break

15.40 Conference day closes

15.40–16.30 Executive Committee meeting

19.00–21.00 Dinner at the City Hall

Sunday 30th August

8.00–8.45 Executive Committee meeting Testing Techniques Session at the Donelaitis Hall, Faculty of Philology, Vilnius University Chairperson Dr. Karl Schmetzer

9.00–9.20 Lutz Nasdala, Chutimun Chanmuang, Tobias Häger, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Allen K. Kennedy, Peter W. Reiners, Tamás Váczi, John W. Valley, Bhuwadol Wanthanachaisaeng, Wu Fuyuan, Manuela Zeug, E. Gamini Zoysa: The scientific importance of gem zircon as analytical reference materials

9.20–9.40 Brendan M. Laurs: Modern mining methods for primary and secondary gem deposits in Mogok, Myanmar

9.40–10.00 Manfred Eickhorst: Technical progress report on LED, gemmology and sustainabily

10.00–10.05 Announcements

10.05–10.50 Coffee break

10.50–12.00 Conference closing ceremony. Conference ends

12.00–14.00 Lunch


  • Gagan Choudhary: Emeralds from Jharkhand, India: An update
  • Helmut Pristacz, Toshihiro Kogure, Vera M.F. Hammer, Gerald Giester, Manfred Wildner, Eugen Libowitzky, Lutz Nasdala: A review of synthetic turquoise
  • Antonello Donini, Elena Gambini, Emanuela Castaman, Giuliano Radice: Unusual and curious gemological materials in laboratory
  • Emmanuel Fritsch, Joel Ivey: Mustard Jasper or Bumble bee stone
  • John M. Saul: “ELECTRUM”: Why was the same word used for amber and also for the naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver?
  • Guanghai Shi, Yan Wang, Wei Shi, Ruihua Wu: Infrared spectral characteristics of ambers from three main sources (Baltic Sea, Dominican Republic and Myanmar) and their implications
  • Elizabeth Su: Jadeite markets in China
  • Thanong Leelawatanasuk, Namrawee Susawee, Marisa Maneekrajangsaeng, Saengthip Saengbuangamlam, Supparat Promwongnan, Nicharee Atsawatanapirom, Pantaree Lomthong, Pornsawat Wathanakul: Treated black sapphire
  • Supparat Promwongnan, Saengthip Saengbuangarmlum, Thanong Leelawatanasuk: Synthetic ruby overgrowth on natural corundum